Department of Psychology

Permanent URI for this collectionhttps://hdl.handle.net/2346.1/38399

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Now showing 1 - 17 of 17
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    Consequences identification in forecasting and ethical decision-making
    (SAGE, 2011-03-01) Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Antes, Alison L.; Thiel, Chase E.; Caughron, Jared J.; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D.
    Forecasting involves predicting outcomes based on observations of the situation at hand. We examined the impact of the number and types of consequences considered on the quality of ethical decision-making. Undergraduates role played several ethical problems in which they forecast potential outcomes and made decisions. Performance pressure (difficult demands placed on the situation) and interpersonal conflict (clashes among people in the problem situation) were manipulated within each problem scenario. The results indicated that the identification of potential consequences was positively associated with both higher quality forecasts and more ethical decisions. Neither performance pressure nor interpersonal conflict affected the quality of forecasts or decisions. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings and the use of this research approach are discussed.
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    Situational impacts on leader ethical decision-making
    (Elsevier, 2011-08-05) Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Mumford, Michael D.
    Leader ethical decision-making has received a great deal of attention in the academic literature. Most research examining ethical leadership has focused on the leader characteristics and subordinate outcomes associated with ethical leadership, but research examining the situational variables influencing leader ethical decision-making is limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine a number of situational variables that may influence leader ethical decision-making. This study examined the impacts of performance pressure, interpersonal conflict, the leader’s decision-making autonomy, the type of ethical issue at hand, and the level of authority of the other person involved in the interaction. The results indicated that when making a decision in response to a superior (as opposed to a peer or subordinate), leaders make worse decisions. Additionally, a number of interactions of the other variables negatively impacted leaders’ ethical decision-making. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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    Managing the innovative process: The dynamic role of leaders
    (American Psychological Association, 2011) Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Shipman, Amanda S.; Mumford, Michael D.
    Innovation has become increasingly important to the survival of organizations. Leaders must manage the process in a series of planning stages. These stages are qualitatively different and thus, have implications for what the leader must think about and do. The relevant leader cognition and social behaviors are discussed, as they must change throughout the process of planning for innovation. In order for leaders to effectively and efficiently manage innovation, they must be able to recognize and adapt to the varying requirements. Existing discrepancies in the literature may be resolved when considered within the context of these stages.
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    Pressure and ethical decision-making
    (Inderscience Enterprises, 2018-12-10) Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Kreitler, Crystal M.
    Performance pressure degrades performance on many types of tasks. Mounting evidence, however, suggests that pressure may not affect ethical decision-making. For the present study, participants analyzed an ethical dilemma using a cognitive tool (ACED IT), expressive writing, or a control task, and their decisions were compared for participants in high and low pressure conditions. Perceptions of moral intensity were also measured.
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    A little goes a long way: Adapting an ethics training program to work for smaller universities
    (SAGE, 2021-03-30) Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Miller, Robert A.
    The present project modified an existing ethics intervention aimed at graduate students, which had previously been evaluated and determined to be effective (e.g., Mumford et al., 2008). The existing program was modified to shorten it from a 2-full day training to a 1-full day training. The effectiveness of the modified training program was evaluated using multiple dependent measures: perceptions of ethical dilemmas, ethical decision-making and the using of cognitive strategies for ethical decision-making, and reactions to the training. The results of the present study indicated that there were significant differences from pre-training to post-training on measures of perceptions of ethical problems and markers of the cognitive processes involved in ethical decision-making, including a focus on the ethical elements of the problem, and overall decision ethicality. Finally, participants responded favorably to the program. Implications of these results are discussed.
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    Forecasting and ethical decision-making: What matters?
    (Routledge, 2013-09-20) Stenmark, Cheryl K.
    This study examined how the number and types of consequences considered are related to forecasting and ethical decision-making. Undergraduate participants took on the role of the key actor in several ethical problems and were asked to forecast potential outcomes and make a decision about each problem. Performance pressure was manipulated by ostensibly making rewards contingent on good problem-solving performance. The results indicated that forecast quality was associated with decision ethicality, and the identification of the critical consequences of the problem and consequences for others were associated with both higher quality forecasts and more ethical decisions. Additionally, the identification of a larger number of consequences was negatively associated with ethical decision-making. Performance pressure did not impact forecast quality or ethicality of decisions. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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    A cognitive tool for ethical decision-making: A case for ACED IT
    (Routledge, 2016-05-11) Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Kreitler, Crystal M.
    The present study examined two forms of a cognitive tool (ACED IT map), which is designed to facilitate ethical decision-making, along with expressive writing. Results demonstrated that participants completing the original ACED IT were more likely to identify: 1) more steps to implementing a solution, 2) more barriers to solution implementation, and 3) more solutions to those barriers, than participants who completed the modified ACED IT, engaged in expressive writing, and those in the control group. These findings suggest that cognitive tools such as ACED IT may be of considerable value for individuals who are presented with ethical dilemmas.
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    Ethical decision-making interrupted: Can cognitive tools improve decision-making following an interruption?
    (Routledge, 2019-10-28) Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Riley, Katherine; Kreitler, Crystal
    This study examined the effects of interruptions and the use of cognitive decision-making tools on ethical decision-making. Participants completed a structured cognitive tool, an unstructured decision-making technique, or no decision-making technique, and half of the participants were interrupted during the decision-making task, whereas half were allowed to complete the decision-making task without interruption. Results revealed that 1) participants who completed the structured cognitive tool (ACED-IT map) performed better on a number of markers of ethical decision-making, 2) interruptions reduced participants’ plan quality, and 3) participants who were interrupted, and who completed the structured cognitive tool exhibited perceptions that suggested that they felt better prepared to handle the ethical dilemma. These results could have important implications for professionals in jobs that experience frequent interruptions, particularly those in management positions.
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    Self-efficacy and ethical decision-making
    (Routledge, 2020-08-10) Stenmark, Cheryl; Redfearn, Robert; Kreitler, Crystal
    Self-efficacy is the assessment of one’s capacity to perform tasks (Bandura, 1986). Previous research has demonstrated that self-efficacy impacts ethical behavior and attitudes (e.g., Elias, 2008; MacNab and Worthley, 2008), but its effect on ethical cognition and perceptions has not been studied. For the present study, participants analyzed an ethical dilemma after either high or low self-efficacy was induced. Participants analyzed the dilemma using one of two cognitive problem-solving techniques (a structured cognitive tool or an unstructured cognitive technique) versus a third, control group, and what participants wrote about the problem was content-analyzed to determine how ethical cognition is impacted by self-efficacy. Additionally, perceptions of the ethical problem were examined. Results revealed that differences in self-efficacy did not lead to changes in ethical cognition, but they did lead to changes in perceptions of ethical problems. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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    The role of sensory processing sensitivity and analytic mindset in ethical decision-making
    (Routledge, 2021-10-04) Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Redfearn, Robert
    Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) is an individual difference that affects people’s thinking and behavior. People who are high in SPS, Highly Sensitive People (HSPs), are more sensitive to stimuli and prefer to take their time in thinking through problems. This study examined the effects of SPS and analytic mindset on ethical decision-making. Mindset was manipulated by instructing participants to either think thoroughly through the ethical problem (deliberation) or focus on finding a concrete, practical solution when solving the problems (implementation). HSPs performed better in the deliberative mindset, allowing them to solve the problem using their natural problem-solving approach. People low in SPS performed better in the implementation mindset. Results suggest that ethics interventions should not be “one size fits all”, and should consider a person’s natural problem-solving tendencies.
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    ACED IT: A tool for improved ethical and moral decision-making
    (Routledge, 2014-08-28) Kreitler, Crystal M.; Stenmark, Cheryl; Rodarte, Allen; Dumond, Rebecca
    Numerous examples of unethical organizational decision-making highlighted in the media have led many to question the general moral perception and ethical judgments of individuals. The present study examined two forms of a straightforward ethical decision-making tool (ACED IT cognitive map) that could be a relatively simple instrument for organizations to improve the moral and ethical decision-making of its members. Results revealed that participants utilizing either form of ACED IT were more likely to identify a moral dilemma than were control participants. Additionally, participants in the modified condition responded differently to the situation. Implications and other findings are discussed.
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    Cultural frame switching and emotion among Mexican-Americans
    (Routledge, 2016-02-01) Kreitler, Crystal M.; Dyson, Kara S.
    Recent evidence indicates that bicultural individuals shift between interpretive frames rooted in different cultures in response to cues encountered in a given situation. The theoretical explanation for these shifts has been labeled Cultural Frame Switching. Research suggests that bicultural individuals shift attributions and values in the presence of culture-relevant stimuli. The current research sought to investigate the effect of priming culture among Mexican-American individuals. Culture was primed by exposing either Mexican or American icons to Mexican-American participants prior to completing an attribution task followed by completing questionnaires assessing current and general emotion. Results revealed that participants primed with American icons reported fewer external attributions then did participants primed with Mexican icons. Further, participants primed with Mexican icons also reported less negative affect and greater general positive affect then did those in the American condition.
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    The College Persistence Questionnaire : Angelo State University retention report global : analysis of students enrolled in psychology courses in fall of 2007, 2009, 2013
    (2018-01) Davidson, William B; Beck, Hall P
    The specific goals of this investigation were to (a) collect reenrollment information on students enrolled in psychology courses during the fall semesters in 2007, 2009, and 2013, (b) determine which student-background factors and student-experience factors predicted their reenrollment in the fall semester one year later, and (c) offer detailed, data-driven guidelines for improving retention rates at ASU, based the results of the quantitative analysis of CPQ scores. The samples included students who took psychology courses to fulfill core curriculum, major, and/or minor requirements, as well as those who took the courses as electives.
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    Forming impressions: effects of facial expression and gender stereotypes
    (SAGE, 2014-04-01) Hack, Tay
    The present study of 138 participants explored how facial expressions and gender stereotypes influence impressions. It was predicted that images of smiling women would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting warmth, and that images of non-smiling men would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting competence. As predicted, smiling female faces were rated as more warm; however, contrary to prediction, perceived competence of male faces was not affected by facial expression. Participants’ female stereotype endorsement was a significant predictor for evaluations of female faces; those who ascribed more strongly to traditional female stereotypes reported the most positive impressions of female faces displaying a smiling expression. However, a similar effect was not found for images of men; endorsement of traditional male stereotypes did not predict participants’ impressions of male faces.
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    Powerless Men and Agentic Women: Gender Bias in Hiring Decisions
    (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 2018-09-26) Hoover, Anne E.; Hack, Tay; Garcia, Amber L.; Goodfriend, Wind; Habashi, Meara M.
    We examined male power-roles as a potential moderator of gender bias in hiring decisions. Drawing from previous work on perceptions of agentic women and precarious manhood theory, we predicted that men in low-power roles may react more negatively to agentic women compared to men in high-power roles. In two experiments, male participants evaluated résumés from male and female job candidates applying for a managerial position. Across experiments, results suggest that lacking power may facilitate biased hiring decisions. U.S. college men assigned to (Experiment 1, n = 83) or primed (Experiment 2, n = 84) with a low-power role rated the female applicant as less hireable and recommended a lower salary for her compared to the male applicant. This difference did not occur in the high-power or baseline conditions. A metaanalysis combining the results of both experiments confirmed that gender bias was limited to the low-power condition. Results are discussed in terms of powerlessness as a masculinity threat that may have downstream consequences for women.
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    Presidential Lies: Deception and the Presidential Election
    (RamTV, 2017-01-24) Mangrum, Leah; Plachno, Don; Ray, Brianna; Samaripa, Anthony
    ASU faculty present a panel discussion on deception in U.S. presidential elections, from the perspectives of psychology, political science, biology, and mathematics.
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    Emotion Priming and Reversing Initial Impressions
    (2013-10-02) Demere, Krysta; Forbes, James
    Participants completed an emotion priming task, read vignettes describing another’s behavior positively or negatively, then rated their impressions. Reading subsequent vignettes depicting behavior contrary to participants’ initial impressions resulted in impression reversal. Moreover, participants’ primed emotions influenced their impression formation and revision process