Department of Security Studies and Criminal Justice

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Now showing 1 - 19 of 19
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    (2022-12-08) Richardson, Sierra
    The 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was an unprecedented agreement between the P5+1 partners (US, UK, France, China, Russia, and Germany), the European Union (EU), and Iran. Its purpose was to address the rate at which Iran was developing its nuclear capabilities, as in 2015, it was estimated that Iran could produce enough fissile material to create a nuclear weapon within two to three months of a decision to do so. On April 2, 2015, the P5+1 and Iran reached an agreement on a framework for the JCPOA, and the accord was finalized on July 14, 2015. The agreement was implemented a year later January 16, 2016. Sanctions on Iran were lifted, and the IAEA was granted full transparency to monitor Iran’s nuclear compliance. However, in 2018, the US under the Trump Administration withdrew from the JCPOA, and the current US presidential administration has been working unsuccessfully for almost two years to revive the agreement with Iran. Russia invading Ukraine has complicated the geopolitical environment and caused the talks to stall. As negotiations continue, the US and its strategic partners must accept that the previous strategies leading up to the successful 2015 JCPOA with Iran have become ineffective in the current geopolitical climate—specifically, within the context of the Russia-Ukraine war. This paper argues that to renegotiate a new deal, the US and strategic partners cannot reuse the formula used to negotiate the 2015 JCPOA with Iran; instead, US foreign policy efforts must increase the value and discussion of static elements to the same level as that of dynamic elements when approaching negotiations. It will explore why the US and strategic partners have been unsuccessful over the years in revitalizing the JCPOA with Iran by analyzing the elements involved in the 2015 JCPOA agreement, their effectiveness today within the context of the Russia-Ukraine War, and the implications of Iran becoming a nuclear or nuclear-threshold state because of failed negotiations. In doing so, it will attempt to identify why the US’s foreign policy under the Biden administration has not been successful in revitalizing a nuclear deal, to enable US policymakers and strategic partners to better articulate the needs and anticipate the success rate, direction, and results of nuclear discussions.
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    Russia: Domination Through Information
    (2021-05-25) Stegemoller, Sean
    The Russian government through innovation and creativity are on track to potentially become the most dominant superpower. They are not doing this through superior military technology or revolutionary diplomacy. Russia has been conducting information warfare against the United States and its allies. Information warfare is changing how war is fought, no longer are the days of war and peace. The United States, Russia, and other nation-states find themselves in an infinite battle of non-kinetic attacks against one another. As Russia has evolved from the fall of the Soviet Union, the fact remains that they still wish to become the most dominant superpower. The Russians will become the world's leading superpower through a war of attrition in information warfare.
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    Do moral beliefs condition the impact of low self-control on digital piracy?
    (Routledge, 2019-12-11) Choi, Jaeyong; Yun, Ilhong
    Morality and low self-control can both play critical roles in rule-breaking behaviors. Yet, our understanding of the interplay between morality and low self-control offers only a limited explanation of digital piracy. Using data from a sample of 1,091 South Korean students, we confirm that both morality and low self-control are important predictors of digital piracy. In addition, the current study reveals that morality conditions the relationship between low self-control and digital piracy. The results show that morality enhances the effects of low self-control on digital piracy. Overall, they thus confirm the importance of morality and low self-control as factors in digital piracy; however, they justify continued efforts to understand the interaction between morality and low self-control with respect to this type of crime.
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    Social integration and confidence in the police: a cross-national multi-level analysis
    (Routledge, 2020-04-08) Choi, Jaeyong; Kruis, Nathan
    Building on the insight of Durkheim, the current study examines the hypothesis that cross-national proxies for social integration explain variation in confidence in the police across different countries. Combining six sources of data from 84 nations with a total sample size of 122,330 respondents, the current research uses hierarchical generalized linear modelling (HGLM) logistic regression analyses to investigate the potential mechanism of social integration in shaping confidence in the police. Results show that three proxies of social integration (i.e., homicide rates, group grievance, and suicide rates) are negatively and significantly associated with confidence in the police. Additionally, results replicated the U-shaped convex curvilinear relationship between democracy and police confidence. Durkheim’s notion of social integration can offer a theoretical framework to account for the effects of country-level variables on confidence in the police across cultural boundaries.
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    Asymmetry in media effects on perceptions of police: An analysis using a within-subjects design experiment
    (Routledge, 2020-04-09) Choi, Jaeyong
    The current study examines the influence of positive, negative, and mixed portrayals of the police in the media on perceptions of police. Participants were randomly assigned to watch an edited video segment from entertainment media. Employing a within-subjects design, participants were surveyed on their perceptions of police, exposed to a video clip, and then re-surveyed. Results from paired-samples t-tests provide evidence concerning media impact on perceptions of police with strong internal validity. The current findings indicate that media exposure can matter, particularly when it introduces negative images of police. Even when mixed images of police were presented, participants were more driven by the negative portrayal. This finding is in line with an asymmetrical impact of negative encounters with police relative to positive encounters.
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    Media use habits, negative encounters with the police, and perceptions of the police: the mainstreaming hypothesis versus the resonance hypothesis
    (Taylor and Francis, 2020-03-04) Choi, Jaeyong; Lee, Daniel R.
    Media researchers have long considered the extent to which the media influence perceptions of the police. More recently, scholars have encouraged more specific investigations to determine if media effects can vary depending on the audience's characteristics. The present article contributes to and extends this line of research by employing unique measures of the media considering various modes of media and content and by examining whether individual experiences condition media effects on perceptions of the police. Using a sample of college students from Southwestern Pennsylvania, results show that there are significant interaction effects between some media measures and audience characteristics, highlighting that it is critical to consider individual characteristics and experiences in understanding media effects on perceptions of the police. Our findings provide mixed support for both of the mainstreaming hypothesis and the resonance hypothesis.
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    An examination of the shadow of sexual assault hypothesis among men and women in South Korea
    (SAGE, 2019-09-06) Choi, Jaeyong; Yim, Haneul; Lee, Daniel R.
    Using a South Korean sample from 2010 National Crime Victim Survey (NCVS), the current research examined the gender differences of fear of four different types of crime testing the shadow of sexual assault thesis, which asserts that sexual assault operates as a master offense for females. The current study provides insight into the robustness of the shadow hypothesis by controlling for various covariates (e.g., perceptions of the neighborhood and crime-related media consumption) that have been often omitted in this line of literature. Results show that the largest difference in fear between males and females was the fear of sexual assault, and based on coefficient comparison tests, fear of sexual assault was a stronger predictor of fear of other crimes among males than among females. The current study calls for future research to disentangle the shadow of sexual hypothesis in different settings and to conduct more studies specifically on men’s fear of crime.
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    The importation of violent “codes” of South Korean inmates
    (2019) Choi, Jaeyong; Dulisse, Brandon
    Despite the popularity of the importation model, the majority of previous institutional misconduct research has used individual characteristics, such as race, prior record, education, and sex as proxies to test this theory. The current study examines particular oppositional beliefs and values found in Anderson’s (1994) “code of the street” through an analysis of self-report data from 951 adult male prison inmates in South Korea. The current study fills a void in previous research by examining direct impacts of imported belief systems on inmate interpersonal aggression toward fellow inmates and correctional officers.
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    Behind closed doors: The role of risky lifestyles and victimization experiences on fear of future victimization among South Korean inmates
    (SAGE, 2019-11-15) Choi, Jaeyong; Dulisse, Brandon
    Criminologists have long considered the extent to which victimization experiences influences fear of future victimization. As a result, some scholars have proposed risky lifestyles theory as a theoretical framework linking individuals’ lifestyles and experiences to their fear of victimization. This study contributes to and extends this line of research by exploring whether risky lifestyles and prior victimization influence fear of future victimization among a large sample of incarcerated felons in South Korea. Results show that while risky lifestyles heighten fear of sexual assault and fear of property theft among inmates, risky lifestyles are not predictive of fear of violent assault. This finding expands the scope of risky lifestyles theory and provides an understanding of why fear of victimization occurs within the prison context.
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    Comparing global and situational support for police use of force across immigrant generations and native-born Americans
    (Emerald, 2019-11-21) Choi, Jaeyong
    Purpose: This study examines if global and situational support for police use of force varies across first-generation immigrants, second-generation immigrants and native-born Americans. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on data from the 2012 General Social Survey, multivariate logistic regression models are performed to predict each of the three binary outcome variables (e.g., support for police use of reasonable force or excessive force) depending on immigrant generation status. Findings: Results indicate that, compared with native-born individuals, first-generation immigrants express less global support for police use of force and less support for police use of reasonable force. In contrast, the first-generation group is more supportive of police use of excessive force compared to the second-generation group and native-born group. Originality/value: Much research on immigrants’ perceptions of the police has yielded conflicting findings. Part of the reason has been attributed to failure to distinguish first-generation immigrants from successive generations of immigrants. The present study fills a gap in this line of research by assessing the extent to which there is a disparity in support for police use of force between different generations of immigrants and native-born individuals.
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    Elaborating differential impact of media exposure on perceptions of police between criminal justice majors and non-criminal justice majors
    (Taylor and Francis, 2019-10-02) Choi, Jaeyong
    Researchers have argued that media exposure involving criminal justice can influence perceptions of police, but empirical research is decidedly mixed. Additionally, some scholars argue that media effects depend on audience characteristics. However, the moderating role of academic major remains unexplored. Using a laboratory-style randomized experiment (N = 270), the current study examines the impact of media exposure that contains conflicting images of the police on perceptions of police and if this effect varies depending on academic majors by performing a series of paired t-tests, independent-samples t-tests, and a mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance. Findings show that exposure to mixed images of the police dampens confidence in the police, but this effect is pronounced among non-CJ majors compared to CJ majors. Expanding our knowledge base in differential media effects between CJ majors and non-CJ majors can offer useful insights into future CJ curricula.
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    Victimization, fear of crime, procedural injustice and inmate misconduct: an application of general strain theory in South Korea
    (Elsevier, 2019-12) Choi, Jaeyong
    Purpose: While a wealth of research on Agnew’s general strain theory has shown that strains can promote the likelihood of crime and deviant behavior, the application of general strain theory towards a prison setting remains understudied. This study aims to expand the knowledge base for our understanding of the roles that unique strains play within prisons that may pressure inmates to engage in inmate misconduct. Methods: Drawing on data from a sample of South Korean inmates, the present paper examines the impact of prison-based strains on violent and nonviolent misconduct. Results: Findings suggest that experienced strain (i.e., violent criminal victimization), anticipated strain (i.e., fear of crime), and perceived procedural injustice adversely affected inmate misconduct; however, the magnitude of the effects varied across different types of inmate misconduct. Conclusions: Prevention/intervention efforts to diminish strains that inmates encounter in institutional corrections are necessary to decrease inmate misconduct.
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    When do police stressors particularly predict organizational commitment? the moderating role of social resources
    (2020-05-12) Choi, Jaeyong; Kruis, Nathan; Yun, Ilhong
    The current study uses data from 570 male police officers working in 16 substations in South Korea to examine the impact of job stressors (e.g., victimization, authoritative organizational culture, and perceptions of unfair work assignments) on organizational commitment. Further, we examine the conditioning effect of social resources on organizational commitment. The results show that organizational characteristics (e.g., authoritative organizational culture, unfair work assignments, and conflict with coworkers) influence officers’ organizational commitment more so than victimization experiences. The results also show that social resources spill over into the workplace and condition the effects of organizational culture on predicting organizational commitment. Potential policy implications are discussed.
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    Direct and indirect effects of crime-related media consumption on public confidence in the police
    (SAGE, 2020) Choi, Jaeyong; Choi, Haneul; Hicks, Randolph D.
    This study explores the potential links between crime-related media consumption and confidence in the police based on the instrumental and expressive models. Drawing on data from a large sample of South Koreans, direct and indirect effects of crime-related media consumption on perceptions of police are examined using a regression-based multiple mediation analysis. Results showed that while there is no direct effect of media consumption on confidence in the police, crime-related media consumption is significantly and negatively associated with public confidence in the police via perceived incivilities and fear of crime. This study suggests that the police should make a constant effort to develop strategies to enhance communication with the public.
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    Examining the links between general strain and control theories: an investigation of delinquency in South Korea
    (Springer Nature, 2019-09) Choi, Jaeyong; Kruis, Nathan; Kim, Jonggil
    In modifying general strain theory (GST), Agnew has accepted the control-related variables as conditioning variables to moderate or mediate the casual process through strain into delinquency. In this regard, this study aims to empirically and theoretically address the void of connecting traditional and redefined self-control variables to GST. To explore this issue, the current study employed data derived from the Korea Children and Youth Panel Study (KCYPS). Specifically, three waves (2012, 2013, and 2014) were used to test hypotheses from GST and control theories. Both trait-based low self-control and revised self-control partially mediated the relationship between strain and delinquency. However, only redefined self-control significantly interacted with strain in producing delinquency. The current research reveals the possible integration of redefined control theory and GST.
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    The effects of life domains on cyberbullying and bullying: testing the generalizability of Agnew’s Integrated General Theory
    (SAGE, 2019) Choi, Jaeyong; Kruis, Nathan
    In 2005, Robert Agnew published his book Why Criminals Offend in which he synthesized an array of theoretical predictors of crime and delinquency into a parsimonious integrated general theory. He argued that delinquency is influenced by mechanisms found in five distinct life domains: self, family, peer, school, and work. Using longitudinal data from South Korea, the current research tested the generalizability of Agnew’s (2005) theory by applying it to bullying and cyberbullying. Results from a negative binomial regression model provided mixed support for Agnew’s theory as a general theory of crime. The significant effects of life domains were found to differ across types of bullying.
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    Fixing Fusion Center Intelligence Under the ODNI
    (2020) Dinong, Alison
    Created as a result of the need for increased national security and information sharing in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks, fusion centers are in a unique position to promote homeland security cooperation and partnership between the federal, regional, state, local, and tribal levels. The National Network of Fusion Centers is the Department of Homeland Security’s primary conduit for information sharing at all levels of the government and is comprised of 78 state, local, and tribal cells that developed independently and spontaneously, and as a result, are at different levels of maturation. While the uniqueness of each of these cells has been championed by the government as a custom-tailored fit to the unique needs of each state or locality, the residual effects of their lack of integration and common framework creates widespread inefficiencies that could be resolved with more engagement from the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) to direct oversight and enterprise capacity, mission integration, national security partnerships, and strategy and engagement. This paper will analyze some of the key National Network inefficiencies with regards to overall National Network strategy, intelligence effectiveness, vertical and horizontal collaboration, and accountability and oversight, and how the ODNI could address these issues according to their structural organization and past successes within the intelligence community (IC).
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    Great War Lecture Series: Drafting for the World War and the World Series
    (RamTV, 2017-01-23) Ray, Brianna; Mangrum, Leah; Ray, Brianna; Mahome, Henry; Plachno, Don; Howard, Russell
    Doctors William A. Taylor and David P. Dewar lecture on the World War 1 draft, and its effect on baseball and Shoeless Joe Jackson.
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    Civil War Lecture Series: Gettysburg
    (RamTV, 2014-09-25) Bledsoe, Brian; Zeni Drianna; Chatin, Candis; Wolfe, David; Mangrum, Leah; Bledsoe, Brian
    Lecture on the Battle of Gettysburg by panel covering all three days of the battle and "Virtual Staff Ride of the Gettysburg Battlefield" as part of the Civil War Lecture Series