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Recent Submissions

Item
Song dialects of the Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli) in the sky islands of New Mexico
(2024-05) Anderson, Mary Beth; Skipper, Ben R.; Negovetich, Nicholas J.; Ammerman, Loren K.; Muelsch, Elisabeth-Christine
For many species of passerine bird, young males acquire their song during a sensitive period when they learn songs from their paternal parents or nearby neighbors. Since young birds are most likely to learn their songs from nearby singers, regional song dialects may form. The mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli) in the mountain ranges of Trans Pecos Texas and southeastern New Mexico are an excellent subject to study this phenomenon due to their resident status and isolation on forested mountain peaks surrounded by desert lowlands. In this study, I hypothesized that localized song dialects exist amongst the isolated mountain chickadee populations within this sky island system, that song differentiation between populations increases with geographic distance, and that song diversity is positively correlated to habitat patch size. Samples from 54 Mountain chickadees recorded in 2023 in the Sacramento and White Mountains, Gallinas Mountains, and Manzano Mountains exhibit differences in the predominant song types and song characteristics across each sky island. Chickadees in the Sacramento, White, and Gallinas Mountains deliver songs consisting of three long notes, while those in the Manzano Mountains deliver songs with two brief notes followed by a long note, another brief note, and another long note. A quadratic discriminant analysis, permutational MANOVA, and Mantel test of song and note characteristics support the hypothesis that mountain chickadees exhibit geographic song variation between these locations, while Jaccard indexes of song similarity indicated that neighboring populations share more song types than distant ones. However, more data is needed from other sky island chickadee populations to determine a relationship between patch size and song diversity.
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Deciding factors for judges when ruling competency to stand trial
(2024-05) Jennings, Madison; Curtis, Drew A.; Burkhalter, Johnny; Gritter, Matthew; Livingston, Tyler N.
When the issue of competence to stand trial is raised, those who make legal decisions, such as judges and courts, rely on forensic evaluator assessments to determine criminal and civil competencies at the time of the alleged offense (Laxton, 2018). Although judges typically rule with the recommendation of the evaluator, Boccaccini and colleagues (2012) report up to 21% of the time, judges may overrule a recommendation. The current study examined the history of competency to stand trial (CST) evaluations, principles for evaluators, and deciding factors for judges when ruling competency or incompetency to stand trial. Additionally, it compared judges’ responses to evaluators’ responses if the two groups find the same factors important. Judges and evaluators were recruited by email and asked to complete a survey that asked them standard demographic questions, if they have ever overruled an evaluator’s recommendation, why they overruled, and what information stands out on report or during an assessment. Judges considered clinical diagnosis the most important factor CST evaluations, never or rarely went against an evaluator’s recommendation, but if they did it was due to additional information being available at the time of decision or the quality of the report. Evaluators consider mental status or behavior during the interview the most important factor and rated all federal standards for competency to stand trial as important to very important.
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Does the applicant's eye gaze affect interview outcomes in virtual job interviews?
(2024-05) Jang, Heewon; Stenmark, Cheryl K.; van Ittersum, Kyle W.; Brojakowski, Benjamin; Taylor, William A.
Video-mediated communication has enabled people to communicate over long distances at a low cost. Despite the technical advances, video-mediated communication systems still have challenges, such as a lack of eye contact. Eye contact is considered an essential element in job interviews. It has been shown that the absence of eye contact affects interview outcomes in face-to-face interviews. However, research on the effects of eye contact in video-mediated job interviews is limited. The current study explores whether an applicant's eye direction affects the interviewer's perceived eye contact and how the interviewer's ratings of applicants vary based on the perceived eye contact affected by the applicant’s eye direction in a video mediated job interview. We expect findings to contribute to the growing body of knowledge regarding the effect of eye direction and eye contact in video-mediated job interviews. Potential job candidates may use the findings from this study as a guide to improving their chances of success in job interviews.
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Risk preference, payday loans, and alternative financial services
(Emerald Publishing Limited, 2023-11-17) Wang, Song
The purpose of this paper is to examine how individual risk preference influences the borrowing of payday loans – a prevalent type of cash loan in the USA with exorbitantly high-interest rates. Additionally, this paper tests how risk preference determines other alternative financial services (AFS), including pawn shops, rent-to-own purchases, title loans, etc.
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Photograph of helicopter pad, ca. 1970
(1970) Mathis, Mike